What is Obesity?
Obesity is a condition that is associated with having an excess of body fat, defined by genetic and environmental factors that are difficult to control when dieting. Obesity is classified as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater. BMI is a tool used to measure obesity. Obesity increases your risk of developing related conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and sleep apnea, to name a few.
How Obesity is Measured
Obesity is measured by various means, but the most common methods used are Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference. There is no perfect method to measuring obesity, however these two indicators are most commonly used by clinicians as a tool to diagnose weight.
BMI (Body Mass Index)
BMI is a measurement used to indicate obesity and severe obesity in adults. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by his or her height in meters squared. An adult with a BMI of 30 or greater is considered obese. Calculate your BMI now!
Once you find your measurement, you will want to find your weight classification that is accompanied on the BMI chart or calculator. Knowing your BMI is a good starting point in addressing your weight. If you find you are in an unhealthy range, you will want to talk with your doctor to address this issue.
There is not a separate BMI chart used for men and women. Both sexes use the same chart to measure obesity. In addition, the same classifications of obesity apply to both men and women.
Waist circumference is a less-common method used to measure obesity in an individual. This simple measurement indicates obesity and severe obesity in adults by measuring your waist. To find your waist circumference, wrap a tape measure around the area above your hip bone and below your rib cage.
For females, a waist circumference of 35 inches or greater is considered unhealthy. For men, a waist circumference of 40 inches or greater is considered unhealthy. There is not a classification chart or various ranges used with this method to determine obesity. Only the simple thresholds for men and women noted above apply.
Risks Associated with Obesity
There are more than 30 medical conditions that are associated with obesity. Individuals who are obese are at risk of developing one or more of these serious medical conditions. The most prevalent obesity-related diseases include:
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Heart disease
- Gallbladder disease
- Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
- Some cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)
Causes of Obesity
There are many causes that directly and indirectly contribute to obesity. Behavior, environment and genetics are among the main contributors to obesity. The Centers for Disease Control has identified these three as the main causes to the complexity of the obesity epidemic.
In today’s fast-paced environment, it is easy to adopt unhealthy behaviors. Behavior, in the case of obesity, relates to food choices, amount of physical activity you get and the effort to maintain your health.
Americans are consuming more calories on average than in past decades. The increase in calories has also decreased the nutrients consumed that are needed for a healthy diet. This behavioral problem also relates to the increase in portion sizes at home and when dining out.
While Americans are consuming more calories, they are not expending them with enough physical activity. Physical activity is an important element in modifying and shaping behaviors. The influence of television, computers and other technologies discourage physical activity and add to the problem of obesity in our society.
Environment plays a key role in shaping an individual’s habits and lifestyle. There are many environmental influences that can impact your health decisions. Today’s society has developed a more sedentary lifestyle. Walking has been replaced by driving cars, physical activity has been replaced by technology and nutrition has been overcome by convenience foods.
Science shows that genetics play a role in obesity. Genes can cause certain disorders which result in obesity. However, not all individuals who are predisposed to obesity become obese. Research is currently underway to determine which genes contribute most to obesity.